Umm al Qura Calender - a Shari'ah - Short Version
BISMILLAH HIRRAHMAN NIRRAHEEM !
ALHAMDU LILLAHI RABBIL ALAMEEN !
WASSALATHU WASSALAMU ALA NABIYINA MOHAMMEDIN WA AALIHI WA SAHBIHI AJMAEEN !
All praise is due to Allah, who has sent down upon His Servant the Book and has not made therein any deviance.
And we have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an Exposition of Everything , a Guidance , a Mercy and Glad Tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims)
The Holy Qur’an is steadfast in declaring that ‘the Sun and the Moon follow courses (exactly) computed (for them) (55:5)’ ; ‘The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) – so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth (9:36)’ ; ‘and He has fixed Phases for the Moon that you might know the number of years and the count of months (10:5)’.
With the revelation of the above verses , the Holy Qur’an is outright in its message that months of a Calendar year can be computed on the basis of the Manazil or Phases fixed by Allah(sub) to the Moon. Accordingly Allah(sub) also reveals the formula in the verse 2:189 to determine the months of a Calendar year.
But Allah(sub) also leaves a message at the end of verse (10:05) that He did not create all this like the Sun ,the Moon and the Earth without any Plan or Truth. And also claims every creation by Him bears a strong reason and remain a strong evidence to the Mankind. And this particular evidence is meant for the Civilization who will boast their Wisdom of Science and Technology (li koumi yahlamoon).
For example the Science of today which is in its advanced stage blindly believes in the theory of Big-Bang. But Allah(sub) anticipating this fault of Human thinking answers in the Holy Qur’an well in advance of about 1400 years. He says , “ He created the Universe in six stages.” (10:03) . And as an evidence to His claim is the creation of the Sun and the Moon which are the closest celestial objects for the direct human observation is orbiting to a fixed calculations and purely created for the reckoning of time(55:5 , 9:36 , 36:39 , 10:05).
Even though the verse (2:189) clearly directs the Prophet(sal) to inform the People that Ahillath indicates the fixed period (of a month) and timing of Hajj to the Mankind , the Prophet(sal) rules out computation of months on the basis of Ahillath and teaches a simplified method to decide the month on the basis of Sighting of Hilal citing the following reasons.
قال النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم: ان الله عز وجل جعل هذه الاهلة مواقيت للناس صوموا لرؤيته وافطروا لرؤيته فان غم عليكم فاتموا العدة (مسند احمد وصحيح ابن خزيمة)
عن ابن عمر رضى الله عنهما عن النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم انه قال انا امة امية لا نكتب ولا نحسب الشهر هكذا وهكذا يعنى مرة تسعة وعشرين ومرة ثلاثين (صحيح البخارى وصحيح مسلم)
وعن ابن عمر رضى الله عنهما ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذكر رمضان فضرب بيديه فقال الشهر هكذا وهكذا وهكذا ثم عقد اامه فى الثالثة فصوموا لرؤيته وافطروا لرؤيته فان اغمى عليكم فاقدروا له ثلاثين (صحيح مسلم)
Allah(sub) created Ahillath to indicate the deadline (of a month) to the Mankind. But (it is meant for the future generations who will have the knowledge of Computing. So it is not for us as ) we are illiterate nation neither know to write nor know the ‘hisaab’ the calculation involved in it. And the Prophet(sal) clapping his hands and showing his fingers said thus and thus that a month can be either of 29 days or of 30 days. And said, “ So , begin fasting when you sight the new moon and stop fasting when you sight the new moon. And if the new moon is obscured then count the month as of 30 days.
قال النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم الصوم يوم تصومون والفطر يوم تفطرون والاضحى يوم تضحون (سنن الترمذى)
Prophet(sal) said, “ It is the day of fasting when you decide it. It is the day of Eid-ul-Fitr when you decide it. And it is the day of Eid-ul-Adha when you decide it.”
From the teachings of the Prophet (sal) it is amply clear that Sighting of new moon is not a Permanent Criterion for deciding a month. Also the Prophet (sal) declares and entrust the job of switching over from the simplified version to an advanced version in the hands of the future Ummah itself.
Like the changing of Kiblah from Baithul Maqdis which was Kiblah for Centuries for many Civilizations including Muslims at the earlier stages to Baithul Haram , this switch over after about 14 centuries from a simplified manual process of Sighting a new moon to an advanced version of Computing months on the basis of Ahillath will remain a strong indicator from the Almighty Allah(sub) to convey a Powerful Message to the Mankind that He is the Creator ! , He is the Sustainer ! and for ever He alone is the Ruler of this Universe !
The advanced version of computing a month on the basis of Ahillath is already revealed in the Holy Qur’an. So the switching over is not ‘Bid’ah’ an innovation but remain a ‘Sari’ah’ an obligation to be perfected by the present Generation.
They ask you about ( Ahillath , the Manazil of ) Hilals , ( the Phases of ) the New Moons ! Say (you) ! It is (intended) for the Mankind (to know) the deadline (of a month) and (to know the day of Arafa in which the faithful converge on the plains of Arafa to fulfil the obligation of ) Hajj ; And it is not Piety to enter into the Phases (of the new moons from behind or from the middle ; But Piety is ‘thakwa’ fear of Allah in obeying His Commands ; And enter into the Phases (of the new moons) from (proper) entrances ; And fear Allah in obedience to His Commands so as to be Successful !
(An interpretation recorded in Sahi al Buhari narrated by Barau bin Asif(ral) for the above verse is his own guess and not from Allah’s Apostle(sal). Also proved incorrect and not valid.)
Ahillath , the Manazil of Hilals or the Phases of the New Moon will indicate the deadline of a month that is Ahillath will indicate weather the month ends in a period of 29 days or in a period of 30 days. Also it will indicate the day of Arafa to fulfil the obligation of Hajj.
It is not Piety to enter into the Phases of the new moon from back or middle. This situation can happen only when we wait for hilal to appear first in any part of the world and begin the month from there. The Holy Qur’an says it is not Piety. So Sighting of the new moon is not Piety.
Piety is ‘thakwa’ fear of Allah in obeying his orders without any hesitation.
Now the Diktat : Enter into the Phases of the new moon from proper entrances. Here Allah(sub) stipulate a formula to end and begin the month with respect to the Phases of the Moon.
And finally the verse ends with a clear warning that Fear Allah(sub) in obedience to His Commands so that you will be Successful.
The Diktat of Allah(sub) is to enter into the Phases from proper entrances. That is when Ahillath starts its course then the first day of the new month should start from the places east of Ka’ba and navigate towards Ka’ba which is a Sign of Allah also the Prime Meridian fixed by Almighty Allah(sub).
To implement the Diktat of Allah(sub) following set of conditions have to be taken into account.
1. Every month Conjunction of the Sun , the Moon and the Earth takes place and the next moment Ahillath begins its course. This event either happens before the Sunset of 29th day in Makkah , the Ummal Qura or there after.
2. When Sun sets at Makkah , the Prime Meridian a new day dawns at the middle of Pacific , the eastern horizon of the Globe.
Now if Ahillath begins before Sunset of 29th day in Makkah then the month ends with 29 days and the first day of the new month will dawn from the eastern horizon and navigate towards Ka’ba. Also Allah’s Apostle(sal) has said a month consists of twenty nine days (narrated by Ibn Umar recoded in Sahi Al Buhari).
And if Ahillath did not begin its course before the Sunset of 29th day in Makkah then the 30th day of the month which is called ‘yaumus shakh’ that is the day of doubt by Allah’s Apostle(sal) already begun its course from Pacific. So the month ends with 30 days.
If the month ends with 29 days with the start of Ahillath before Sunset of 29th day in Makkah then the birth of the new moon on the western parts of the Globe can be confirmed Scientifically , Sighting the new moon with Optical aids are also possible and at some time the new moon can be sighted with naked eye.
And if the month ends with 30 days with the start of Ahillath after Sunset of 29th day in Makkah then the birth of new moon cannot be confirmed by any means on the 29th day of the month from any part of the world which is pointed out by Prophet(sal) as day of ‘qumma’ , the day when moon is obscured.
( See : UMT Clock developed by the Author which indicates Ahillath, the Phases of the new moon ; Mawakeeth, the last day of the month ; Ruiyath, the visibility of the new moon. )
Months of a Calendar year computed in advance on the basis of Ahillath ensures the birth of Hilal , the new moon of the month. So there is no difference in the basic Principle for determining the Calendar either on the basis of Hilal or on the basis of Ahillath.
On the basis of Sighting it is not possible to announce the date for Hajj in advance. But on the basis of Ahillath computation of months can be done well in advance and The Umm al Qura Calendar can be formulated with aquiracy for Centuries in advance.
( See: Ummal Qura Calculations for the Hijri years 1434 – 1445 )
Now the Ummah is under the obligation of implementing a Shari’ah which so far remained neglected or not being paid any attention from any quarters of the intellectuals and Islamic Jury.
“ On the day of Eid al Fitr and on the day of Eid al Adah (which are the two days of feasting for the entire Ummah) the Apostle(sal) forbidden fasting on these two days.”
Narrated by Ayesha(ral) , Abu Huraira(ral) and Abu Saeed(ral) ; Book : Muslim.
Also the following Sunnah which Guarantees Purification of a Person for the life time if followed regularly remains meaningless.
“ If any one observe fasting on the day of Arafa then Allah(sub) forgives his sins of the past and future one year .”
Narrated by Al Khathadha(ral) ; Book : Muslim
Holy Qur’an is Supreme and Declares beyond any doubt that Ahillath indicates Hajj that is the day of Arafa for the entire Ummah. So the day of Arafa is the day when faithful reach the plains of Arafa to fulfil the obligation of Hajj. And the day of Sacrifice in Makkah is Eid al Adah for entire Ummah.
Also Holy Qur’an Diktats the Ummah to enter Baithullah from the entrances that is from the places East of Ka’ba when Ahillath begins its course. So the days of two Eids should start from East like the day of Jum’ah Prayer which is also a day of Eid for the Believers and arrive at Ka’ba in the middle and end at places west of Ka’ba.
Now onwards The Umm Al Qura Makkah Calendar will remain the Sole Universal Islamic Calendar for the entire Ummah. And it is Shari’ah to follow the dates of Umm Al Qura strictly. So if any Muslim Ummah who are not in agreement with the dates of Umm Al Qura then their actions are against Shari’ah and their Deeds are simply wasted.
Fear Allah(sub) in obedience to His Commands so that you will be Successful !
Sadakkallahul Aleem !
Walhamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen !